China’s ‘Great Cannon’ Censors Foreign Websites by Force: Report


Image: Protest opposite China censorship during CeBIT 2015 Technology Trade FairAlexander Koerner / Getty Images

A protester opposite internet censorship, wearing a Computer as a helmet, is seen outward Hanover Congress Centrum on Mar 15, in Hanover, Germany.

There’s a new apparatus in China’s arsenal of Internet censorship tools: In further to a obvious “Great Firewall” restraint those in a nation from visiting certain sites, there is now a “Great Cannon” that deluges unfamiliar websites with trade in sequence to take them offline. The technique is detailed in a new news from a University of Toronto’s Citizen Lab, that also coins a term. It radically works by hijacking trade to a renouned website, in this box Chinese hunt hulk Baidu, and redirecting it toward a aim — this time it was, a site hosted outward China that monitors censorship in a nation and provides entrance to blocked material.

“Conducting such a widespread conflict clearly demonstrates a weaponization of a Chinese Internet to co-opt capricious computers opposite a web and outward of China to grasp China’s process ends,” reads a report. Such systems could also be configured to route and cgange trade entrance from a aim individual, instead of any channel a limit or going to a certain website. But Western authorities competence have an ungainly time condemning a Great Cannon, a researchers note, given a U.S. and U.K. have built unequivocally identical systems with unequivocally identical intentions, as indicated by papers leaked by former NSA executive Edward Snowden.

The best invulnerability opposite any counter of this type, unfamiliar or domestic, is good encryption, a news concludes. If a information can’t be review by hackers or spies in a initial place, it can’t be tampered with.



—Devin Coldewey



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Henry Austin assimilated NBC News as a writer in Jun 2013, and covers domestic and unfamiliar violation stories for Austin assimilated NBC News after some-more than 10 years as a reporter. After starting during British press organisation South West News Service, he altered to British newspapers The Sun and The People, before relocating to Canada to assistance set adult press organisation Hot News. There, he lonesome U.S. news stories for a accumulation of newspapers and magazines around a world.

He lives in London and works out of a NBC News London bureau.

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Cassandra Vinograd is a Senior Writer and News Editor. Before fasten NBC News, she worked as a London-based match for The Associated Press and specialized in politics, unfamiliar affairs and defense.

Vinograd formerly worked as an editor for The Wall Street Journal in Brussels and London.

She has reported extensively from Afghanistan and on West Africa and a Middle East.

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Alexander Smith is a staff contributor during formed in London. He started work there in Aug 2013, and is obliged for finding, verifying, and essay violation stories. He altered to NBC News from a standalone startup, where he was a violation news editor. Before Breaking News, he was a contributor in a informal press where he lonesome crime and courts.

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The “Great Cannon”: How China Turns Its Websites Into Cyber Weapons

The Great Cannon: How China Turns Its Websites Into Cyberweapons 

When anti-Chinese censorship services got strike with a crippling distributed-denial-of-service conflict final month, researchers fast pegged China as a culprit. Now, Citizen Lab has pinpointed a Chinese apparatus that done this conflict happen. They’re job it a Great Cannon.

Separate from though located within China’s Great Firewall, this “Great Cannon” injects antagonistic code as a approach to make state censorship, by regulating cyberattacks to repairs services that assistance people within China see criminialized content.

The Great Cannon is not simply an prolongation of a Great Firewall, though a graphic conflict apparatus that hijacks trade to (or presumably from) sold IP addresses, and can arbitrarily reinstate unencrypted calm as a man-in-the-middle.

With this many new DDoS attack, a Great Cannon worked by weaponizing a web trade of visitors to Baidu or any website that used Baidu’s endless ad network. This means anyone visiting a Baidu-affiliated from anywhere in a universe was exposed to getting their web trade hijacked and incited into a arms to inundate anti-censorship websites with too most traffic.

This sold conflict had a slight target: Specific sites famous to by-pass Chinese censorship. But Citizen Lab thinks a Great Cannon could be used in a most broader way. Since it is able of producing a full-blown man-in-the-middle attack, it could be used to prevent unencrypted emails, for example.

The conflict launched by a Great Cannon appears comparatively apparent and coarse: a denial-of-service conflict on services disgusting to a Chinese government. Yet a conflict itself indicates a distant some-more poignant capability: an ability to “exploit by IP address”. This possibility, not nonetheless celebrated though a underline of a architecture, represents a manly cyberattack capability.

As Citizen Lab’s researchers note, it’s flattering bizarre that China would uncover off this absolute arms by regulating it in such a forked attack.

Conducting such a widespread conflict clearly demonstrates a weaponization of a Chinese Internet to co-opt capricious computers opposite a web and outward of China to grasp China’s process ends.

The usually china backing here is that this might prompt a some-more obligatory pull to switch to HTTPS, given a Great Cannon usually works on HTTP. This conflict creates it painfully apparent that regulating HTTPS isn’t only a intelligent safeguard— it’s a required prevision opposite absolute state-sponsored cyberattacks. [Citizen Lab]

Image around Flickr / Dan Hankins

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The “Great Cannon” will fire down websites over Chinese borders, contend …


China has stretched a internet censorship efforts with a new plan that secretly intercepts web trade and redirects it during websites opposite a globe.

Dubbed “Great Cannon,” a new plan targets websites and services directed during assisting Chinese netizens by-pass a “Great Firewall,” according to a news by a Citizen Lab during a University of Toronto.

The news states that “the Great Cannon is not simply an prolongation of a Great Firewall, though a graphic conflict apparatus that hijacks trade to (or presumably from) particular IP addresses, and can arbitrarily reinstate unencrypted calm as a man-in-the-middle.”

The commentary support claims from a romantic organization GreatFire, that final month pronounced China was seeking to close down a websites that offer “mirrored” calm from blocked websites like those of a New York Times and others.

In a minute write adult by The Economist on several identical attacks of this nature, a journal claims that unfamiliar trade entering China meant for Baidu was intercepted and redirected during American websites.

The redirected trade impressed a bandwidth and resources of a targeted websites, effectively holding them offline and using adult complicated costs for a owners.

While on a subject of censorship, we competence be astounded to hear that China ranked a small 176 out of 180 countries in a 2015 World Press Freedom Index, and that in 2013 a Chinese media sourroundings was announced as being “one of a world’s many restrictive.”

By Dominic Jackson

China’s ‘Great Cannon’ shoots down websites it doesn’t like

Rusty iron cannon on a height of Juyongguan pass, Changping County, Beijing, China

According to a new news from Citizen Lab, China has not usually built itself a “Great Cannon” though has already dismissed it as well. This manly online arms seems to be able of intercepting internet trade during a inhabitant turn afterwards directing it during specific networks to hit them offline. China’s already widely suspected of being behind a new conflict opposite Github, that was overloaded for scarcely a week around “an ongoing and evolving vast DDOS attack.” Now it appears that Github’s enemy used a Cannon to route that trade from Chinese hunt engine hulk Baidu to ravage a website. All reportedly since a San Francisco-based website hosted a span of pages that couple to calm criminialized in China.

The arms works most like a customary man-on-the-side attack, that operates by intercepting information as it is sent between dual nodes, afterwards redirecting it to a third. The Cannon appears to precedence an analytics book ordinarily distributed by a Baidu hunt engine. Normally, this book is innocuous, promulgation information behind to Baidu whenever a user visits a website that it is using on. But according to Citizen Lab, a Cannon’s creators fiddled with a formula a bit so that, instead of promulgation a parcel of data, it redirected a user to Github thereby flooding a website with trade from gullible users.

While a US does have a likewise able arms in the QUANTUM program, America has never employed it in such a arrogant and open display. What’s more, it could vigilance a discouraging change in China’s online behavior; relocating from the pacifist censorship of the Great Firewall to actively aggressive unfamiliar sites with a Great Cannon.

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China May Have Broader Web Traffic Tampering Capabilities, Group Says

BEIJING—A new cyberattack on a U.S. coding website suggests China has broader capabilities to breach with tellurian web trade than formerly recognized, a new news said.

Toronto-based tellurian rights investigate organisation Citizen Lab pronounced Friday a attack, widely believed to have come from China, showed a nation has grown an descent cyber apparatus that it could potentially use for a extended operation of purposes, such as to send viruses…

‘Great Cannon’ Internet trade diverter widens Chinese censorship powers …

China has stretched a Internet censorship efforts over a borders with a new plan that attacks websites opposite a globe, researchers pronounced Friday.

The new strategy, dubbed “Great Cannon,” seeks to close down websites and services directed during assisting a Chinese by-pass a “Great Firewall,” according to a news by a Citizen Lab during a University of Toronto.

“While a conflict infrastructure is co-located with a Great Firewall, a conflict was carried out by a apart descent system, with opposite capabilities and design, that we tenure a ‘Great Cannon,’ ” a news said.

“The Great Cannon is not simply an prolongation of a Great Firewall, though a graphic conflict apparatus that hijacks trade to (or presumably from) particular IP addresses.”

The news supports claims by a romantic classification GreatFire, that final month claimed China was seeking to close down a websites that offer “mirrored” calm from blocked websites like those of a New York Times and others.

The technique involves hijacking Internet trade to a large Chinese hunt engine Baidu and regulating that in “denial of service” attacks, that inundate a website in an bid to hit it offline.

The news authors pronounced a new apparatus represents “a poignant escalation in state-level information control” by regulating “an conflict apparatus to make censorship by weaponizing users.”

The Great Cannon manipulates a trade of “bystander” systems including “any unfamiliar mechanism that communicates with any China-based website not entirely utilizing (encryption).”

The Citizen Lab researchers pronounced they found “compelling justification that a Chinese supervision operates a GC (Great Cannon),” notwithstanding Beijing’s denials of impasse in cyberattacks.

Because a Great Cannon shares formula and infrastructure with a Great Firewall, this “strongly suggests a bureaucratic actor,” pronounced a report, that enclosed partnership from researchers during a University of California and Princeton University.

The researchers pronounced that deploying a Great Cannon “is a vital change in tactics,” and that it would expected “require a capitulation of high-level authorities within a Chinese government.”

“The government’s logic for deploying a GC here is unclear, though it might wish to confront a hazard presented to a Communist Party of China’s ideological control by a ‘collateral freedom’ plan modernized by and others,” a news said.

The news was constructed by researchers Bill Marczak, Nicholas Weaver, Jakub Dalek, Roya Ensafi, David Fifield, Sarah McKune, Arn Rey, John Scott-Railton, Ronald Deibert and Vern Paxson, who are dependent with a universities or a International Computer Science Institute.

The news also indicates China and a Great Cannon were obliged for a conflict on GitHub, a module partnership website that is also used by Chinese dissidents to by-pass censorship.

The conflict tool, pronounced a researchers, gives China capability identical to that of a U.S. National Security Agency’s Quantum program, described in papers leaked by former NSA executive Edward Snowden.

But a news pronounced it is misleading because China is doing this overtly.

“We sojourn undetermined as to because a (Great Cannon) user chose to initial occupy a capabilities in such a publicly manifest fashion,” a news said.

“Conducting such a widespread conflict clearly demonstrates a weaponization of a Chinese Internet to co-opt capricious computers opposite a web and outward of China to grasp China’s process ends.”

It pronounced a technique “is a dangerous precedent” and “contrary to general norms and in defilement of widespread domestic laws prohibiting a unapproved use of computing and networked systems.”